The question as to whether or not Iraq actually used chemical weapon-loaded Scud missiles during the 1991 Gulf War is still an open one. Further to this, there still remain outstanding questions about the claims that Iraq possessed illegally-retained Scud Missiles in the period prior to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. There is no complete record to draw upon and no one organisation has ever been seen to have compiled an exhaustive and comprehensive analysis.
- A review by a former member of the Dhahran Scud Watchers Club
ISG accounting for missing Iran-Iraq War-era chemical weapon stocks
With reference to missing weapons from the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq War. This document was released as part of the Fort Leavenworth document 'dump' of papers recovered by the Iraq Survey Group as found in Iraq and released to public scrutiny during the Spring of 2006. This policy of releasing documents was shortly afterwards reversed and all were subsequently removed from the Fort Leavenworth website.
Reference: ISGQ-2003-M0004666_TRANS.doc (Part only)
Male 1 (believed to be Saddam Hussein)
Let me talk in details, the 17 Tons you didn't answer him a satisfactory answer. Which is related to the previous programs, this doesn't mean that these 17 Tons are maybe hidden! I don't think so. Then what is preventing you and comrade Tariq before you came, he said we for sure produced Biological, means Biological weapons. So he is really looking in the previous programs. I am telling you, that not all your answers to Ekeus about the Chemical are correct and precise. You gave him numbers to satisfy him, and it seems until now he is satisfied with the total. But at the same time I know that America is looking to prove our use of chemicals against Iran! And we in fact did use Chemical on the Iranians. And we didn't answer them that we used Chemical on the Iranians. So in all your programs that you present in Chemical there still will be a gap, and whenever he wants to raise it he can raise it with what's called Leveling, the one you talked about. Between the imported data and the weapons produced and the destroyed, there is going to be a gap a number of weapons used in Iran you guys didn't cover.
From the Iraq Survey Group final report of 30 September 2004:
On 18 July 1998, another incident created a confrontation between UNSCOM and Iraqi officials. During an inspection of the operations room at Iraqi Air Force Headquarters, an UNSCOM team found a document containing information about the consumption of special (chemical) munitions during the Iran-Iraq War.
According to Husam Muhammad Amin, former director of the National Monitoring Directorate, "It was laziness on behalf of the Brigadier that the document was found. The Brigadier had more than one hour to hide the document while the inspectors waited at the entrance of the Air Force command. The Brigadier was sent to court and his judgment was imprisonment for 5-10 years in jail."
The inspection team felt that this document could be helpful in their efforts to verify the material balance of Iraq’s chemical munitions. Rather than take possession of the document, the chief inspector on the team requested a copy. Initially Iraqi officials on the scene agreed; then reneged, saying inspectors could only take notes on the document or receive a redacted copy. The chief inspector objected to these restrictions after which Iraqi officials seized the document from the chief inspector's hands and refused UNSCOM any further access to the papers. According to Amin, Iraq considered any documentation or discussions detailing the use of chemical weapons to be a redline issue. Iraq did not want to declare anything that documented use of chemical weapons for fear the documentation could be used against Iraq in lawsuits. Iraqi Regime leadership was concerned Iran would seek legal reparations for the death and suffering of Iranian citizens due to Iraq's use of CW in the 1980s.
From 1998 until 2003, Iraq was unwilling to hand over the Air Force document. According to Tariq 'Aziz, "In most cases Saddam listened and agreed with me when I would tell him that we must be forthcoming with the UN." However, 'Aziz added, "The Higher Committee did not want to release the document to the UN because the delivery times and methods contained in the document were thought to be sensitive." When pressed further on why the Iraqis were so adamant about maintaining the Air Force document 'Aziz paused, then stated, "We did not have to hand over the document because it was a matter of our national security."